Previous Research

Through both statistical and normative analysis of various articles and public policy, we as S.P.A.C.E. have reached the conclusion that there is significant evidence to justify our focus on building and spreading a media platform in response to violent attitudes and actions committed in terms of United States immigration. Said evidence is laid out in a two-prong format, highlighting violent rhetoric used by extremist groups readily recognized in contributing to the escalation of violence within this topic and those individuals/groups that go beyond rhetoric and resort to violent action.


Use of violent and extreme rhetoric

White supremacy groups

National Socialist Movement

  • Dates of Occurrence: November 12, 2006. November 8, 2008. November 11, 2008. October 24, 2009. November 14, 2010.
  • Places of Occurrence: Riverside, CA. Phoenix, AZ. Tyler, TX. Austin, TX.
  • Background: “This group held various anti-immigration marches on aforementioned state capitols”. SPLC

Neo-Nazi Nationalist Coalition

  • Date of Occurrence: March 10, 2009.
  • Place of Occurrence: Chandler, AZ
  • Background: “Flyers from this group were tossed into driveways. The flyers expressed concern about non-white immigration in neighborhood”. SPLC


  • Date of Occurrence: March 31, 2007
  • Place of Occurrence: Rancho Cucamonga, CA
  • Background: “About ten members of this group crashed a rally organized by the anti-immigration group the Minuteman Project”. SPLC

Not identified with specific groups


  • Date of Occurrence: September 1, 2011
  • Place of Occurrence: Los Angeles, CA
  • Background: “Immigrant rights activist allegedly received hundreds of threatening phone calls after a radio show known for its inflammatory anti-immigration rhetoric aired his personal cell phone number”. SPLC


  • Date of Occurrences: April 16, 2004. July 6, 2008.
  • Places of Occurrences: San Bernardino, CA. Granite Bay, CA.
  • Background:

2004, San Bernardino.

“Red, white and blue paint was smeared on the front steps of a Catholic church that hosted a forum to give drivers’ licenses to undocumented immigrants”. SPLC

2008, Granite Bay.

“Sexual and racist graffiti, some of it targeting a local Laotian immigrant, was spray-painted on county signs and other areas”. SPLC



  • “Waving American flags and chanting “go back home,” a mob of protesters stood in the center of a street in Murrieta, California, on July 1, halting three white buses filled with 140 immigrants. The crowd of between 200 to 300 people was enough to force the buses – filled with children and families – to reroute to a San Diego processing center more than 80 miles away.”
  • Categorized as regular citizens not a part of radical groups.
  • Reference to article from US News
    • Title: Anti-Immigrant Hate Coming From Everyday Americans: Frustration with the current immigration system is coming from citizens, not hate groups.

Public Policy

  • Analysis of SB-1070 law of Arizona

Frequent use of the term ‘alien’ to refer to illegal immigrants-which suggests the connotation of being separate and dehumanizes illegal immigrants.

Increased discretion given to police officers to be able to stop vehicles and persons suspected of not being legal citizens, if they have reasonable suspicion-open to an increased chance of racial profiling. SB-1070 law

  • Comments by Officials in public office

Previous Governor Jan Brewer and her insistence of categorizing this category of people as ‘illegal aliens’

Reference to interviews conducted by various media outlets

Online Presence and Use of Social Media

In a study done by Reuters, there was evidence to suggest that the media presence and number of followers of various white supremacy groups are higher than the terrorist organization ISIL

  • “White nationalists and Nazis outperformed ISIS in average friend and follower counts by a substantial margin,” the report said. “Nazis had a median follower count almost eight times greater than ISIS supporters, and a mean count more than 22 times greater.”

Use of actual violence

Murder and Aggravated Assault

  • Date of Occurrence: July 5, 2011
  • Place of Occurrence: Phoenix, AZ
  • Background Information: Gary Thomas, 51, was sentenced to 20 years in prison for murder and 7 ½ years for aggravated assault for the May 2010 shooting death of his Latino neighbor Juan Varela. Police said before shooting Varela, Kelley repeatedly used a racial slur and told Varela to “go back to Mexico” or he would die. Incident occurred less than 2 weeks after Arizona’s controversial immigrant bill was passed

Assault with a Deadly Weapon, Committing Hate Crime

  • Date of Occurrence: January 3, 2009
  • Place of Occurrence: Vallejo, CA
  • Background: Fredrick Martin, 31, was charged with assault with a deadly weapon and committing a hate crime after gunning his car toward a group of immigrant day laborers on the side of the road.


  • Date of Occurrence: January 28, 2007
  • Place of Occurrence: Eloy, AZ
  • Background: Four men wearing military-style berets and camouflage pants attacked 12 undocumented immigrants, killing a man and shooting a teenager.

Two counts of Murder

  • Date of Occurrence: May 30, 2009
  • Place of Occurrence: Pima County, AZ
  • Background: The court found that Forde led a group of anti-immigrant vigilantes in a March 2009 raid on the Flores home, where they posed as immigration agents and pushed their way through the door. She and her accomplices, Albert Robert Gaxiola and Jason Eugene Bush, allegedly shot Raul Flores before turning their guns on Brisenia, who begged not to be shot. Gina Gonzalez, Brisenia’s mother, played dead and survived the attack. The case was not designated as a hate crime, despite Forde’s long history with anti-immigrant organizations. She once maintained a Tea Party blog, was a member of Minuteman Civil Defense Corps and has presented herself as a representative of Federation for American Immigration Reform. (All three have since distanced themselves from her.) After being cast out from the Minuteman group due to erratic behavior, she formed her own vigilante group, called Minutemen American Defense, which also patrolled the United States-Mexico border trying to detect illegal immigration.